With the lock-down due to Covid-19, you’d think there would be a flurry of postings as we’re stuck at home and barely working, after all. But I’ve gone from disgust and disappointment, to rage, to utter contempt and indifference. Canada is so dull and pathetic even taking 15 minutes to write about it is a chore.
I wrote before about how Canada is a real shithole outside its major cities, where violence is rampant (confirmed by Stats Canada). Now we’ll take a look at shootings in the country to once again make the point.
During a Hell’s Angels dispute, five bikers are shot dead in a clubhouse in Lennoxville(Sherbrooke) Quebec (current population: 5,502). Four Hell’s Angels members were later convicted of first-degree murder.
Ecole Polytechnique massacre, 1989:
A misogynist kills fourteen women (wounding another fourteen) at a college in Montreal, before shooting himself.
Mark Vijay Chahal shoots nine people (estranged wife and other family members) at a wedding party in Vernon, British Columbia (current population: 48,073).
Myers High School shooting, 1999:
A 14 year old boy brings a semi-automatic rifle to school and manages to kill one student and wound another before being tackled by a teacher in Taber, Alberta (current population: 8,548). He was sentenced to three years in prison and escaped from a halfway house in 2005.
OC Transpo massacre, 1999:
A former OC Transpo employee pulls into the company’s garage and goes on a shooting spree, he kills four and then himself.
“At last count, the national sex offender registry contained 43,217 names—or about one entry for every 813 people in Canada.”
“Unlike in the United States, where sex offender registries are publicly searchable, Canada’s version was never designed for citizen consumption. Its founding purpose is to help police locate potential suspects who live near a crime scene, not provide parents with a printout of every convicted molester residing in the neighbourhood.”
It’s okay for law enforcement to have the information to investigate a crime after the fact, but not acceptable for diligent parents to have the information for crime prevention and neighborhood safety. Makes sense … if you’re Canadian.
It gets better, as in backwards Canada sex offenders are winning court rights:
“If a national sex offender database doesn’t contain the name of every known sex offender, after all, is it even worth having?
In a legal first, Ndhlovu convinced a judge last October that the NSOR is unconstitutional because all convicted sex offenders automatically make the list, regardless of how relatively minor their crimes might be, or minimal the threat they may pose. Simply put, the judge found that denying an offender the opportunity to seek an exemption from the database—especially someone like Ndhlovu, who displayed “great remorse” for his actions and is considered a “very low risk to re-offend”—violates his Charter right to life, liberty and security of the person.
“Subjecting all offenders, regardless of their future risk, to onerous reporting requirements, random compliance checks by police, and internal stigma, goes further than what is necessary to accomplish the goal of protecting the public,” wrote Madam Justice Andrea Moen, of Alberta’s Court of Queen’s Bench. “The law as it stands will now place Mr. Ndhlovu on police radar for the rest of his life anytime a sexual offence is committed by a black man of average height in his neighbourhood. I find that requiring him to register bears no connection to the object of assisting police officers in the investigation or prevention of future sex crimes.”
” … At the heart of the legal arguments is a question that has divided policymakers since before the registry even launched in 2004: Should every convicted sex offender be automatically added to the system? Or should judges have the leeway to decide who makes the cut, taking into account the circumstances of the crime and the specific danger posed by the perpetrator?”
Welcome to Canada folks: protecting women and children is a minor detail next to protecting the rights of sex offenders. If you don’t want to be placed on the list it’s quite simple: don’t commit sexual assault. Plenty have gone through life without committing the “mistake” of sexually assaulting others.
When the data base began it was “discretionary” which allowed for a judge to decide on a ‘registration order’. Predictably: “The result? Hundreds of convicted rapists, pedophiles and child pornographers were left off, either because a Crown did not apply or a judge did not approve.”
After a 2008 Maclean’s investigation into the matter which put it in the spotlight, changes were promised. Starting in 2011, changes were made to include automatic inclusion. ( 2011 !!! WHAT THE HELL CANADA?!) Not only that:
“Offenders can also apply for removal after a certain period of time (someone with a lifetime order must wait 20 years, for example).”
So initial registration (a simple process), checking in once a year, and being eligible to apply for removal is “too much” for the poor burdened sex offenders of Canada.
Whenever it faces criticism, Canada falls back on the following argument against a public registry: by allowing sex offenders to remain anonymous in the community they are being “protected”. Being protected they are more likely to integrate into society, and if living a “safe, normal” life they are less likely to reoffend – or so is the perverse logic about the matter.
A Canadian study on recidivism rates of sexual offenders (2004) shows:
“Table 2 summarises the recidivism estimates for three distinct time periods, five years, ten years, and fifteen years, for each of the subgroups examined.
The overall recidivism rates (14% after 5 years, 20% after 10 years and 24% after 15 years) were similar for rapists (14%, 21% and 24%) and the combined group of child molesters (13%, 18%, and 23%).
There were, however, significant differences between the child molesters, with the highest rates observed among the extrafamilial boy-victim child molesters (35% after 15 years) and the lowest observed rates for the incest offenders (13% after 15 years).
… Offenders with a prior sexual offence conviction had recidivism rates about double the rate observed for first-time sexual offenders (19% versus 37% after 15 years).”
Recidivism rates tend to change depending on the study. What’s interesting is that this study included Americans (Washington, California) and Brits (England, Wales) – a significant portion I’ll add. The SOR is public in the United States, but only accessible in the UK by law enforcement, teachers, youth leaders, sports club managers, landlords and some others. There is a disclosure scheme whereby parents can request the record of a person with unsupervised access to the child.
I wonder how much the recidivism rates were affected by the public SOR in the USA, and a somewhat open registry in the UK? How does that factor in, versus Canada? It doesn’t say.
They try to put a positive spin on it with this:
“Most sexual offenders do not re-offend sexually over time. This may be the most important finding of this study as this finding is contrary to some strongly held beliefs.”
Interesting conclusion to come to based on a little over 4,000 people studied, considering the global amount of sexual predators. Do these predators reoffend more in developing nations without registries and with poorer law enforcement agencies?
Also pointed out earlier in the article: each study on this subject compromises different definition and criteria, making it difficult to pin down matching conclusions.
But even just going by this study, we can conclude that very serious sex offenders overall reoffend at a rate of about 24%. That’s roughly 1 in 4 offenders. While it may not be “most”, it is a frighteningly significant amount.
If I threw one of the authors into an abandoned building with four rapists and told her “only one” was likely to reoffend, I wonder how comforted she’d be?
If a neighbor three doors down is protected and goes on to rape an eight year old, I’m sure her father will be comforted by the fact the RCMP have access to the SOR to “investigate” the crime afterwards. Caker logic!
Until sussing out which offenders will reoffend becomes an exact science or has enough accuracy to merit discussion, we best make do with what we have and protect people, especially children!
Canada: haven for serial killers and sex offenders.
Canada: shit hole with no regards for the victims.
Canada = dump.
It should be noted that this study does not even begin to touch on the subject of psychopathy, which is intertwined with serious crimes.
A large percentage of violent crimes are committed by persons with psychopathy or other Cluster-B disorders. These people are notoriously difficult to treat and can’t be cured; they’re often able to fool even hardened detectives and world class researchers.
If the statistics in this study are reflective of recidivism by ASPD offenders, then keeping the list private in hopes of rehabilitation is in effect aiding the criminals and makes no difference whatsoever to future outcomes.
“The picture is almost as bad for violent sexual recidivism. Psychopathy is a significant predictor of sexual violence. Rice and Harris found that 75% of all individuals with both a high Hare score and a positive sexual deviance response—defined as a positive penile pleithismograph response to depictions of children, rape cues, or nonsexual violence—committed a new sexually violent crime within 10 years (as shown in Figure 5).”
Summary: “Police-recorded incidents of Aboriginal female homicides and unresolved missing Aboriginal females in this review total 1,181 – 164 missing and 1,017 homicide victims.
There are 225 unsolved cases of either missing or murdered Aboriginal females: 105 missing for more than 30 days as of November 4, 2013, whose cause of disappearance was categorized at the time as “unknown” or “foul play suspected” and 120 unsolved homicides between 1980 and 2012.
The total indicates that Aboriginal women are over-represented among Canada’s murdered and missing women. There are similarities across all female homicides. Most homicides were committed by men and most of the perpetrators knew their victims — whether as an acquaintance or a spouse.
The majority of all female homicides are solved (close to 90%) and there is little difference in solve rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal victims.” Information sourcing:
“What this project did differently was to supplement publicly available data with a comprehensive extract of information from law enforcement holdings from across all police jurisdictions in Canada. This fills a significant gap.”
“The RCMP has almost completed cross-referencing the data it collected from police records with NWAC and Dr. Pearce’s research. Reconciliation to date has been valuable in establishing these findings and improving police record data quality.”
“The total of missing Aboriginal females was based primarily on a report of all women listed as missing for more than 30 days across all police jurisdictions on the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) system as of November 4, 2013.” Violence against Aboriginal women: “They are at a higher risk of being victims of violence than non-Aboriginal females …
The rate of victimization among Aboriginal females was close to three times higher than that of non-Aboriginal females.”
“… there were 164 missing Aboriginal females as of November 4, 2013. They make up approximately 11.3% of the total number of missing females (1,455 total).”
[4.3% of female population = 11.3% of missing females]
Police estimates for the missing women: Uknown = 61 / Foul Play = 44 / Accident = 45 / Lost or wandered off = 12 / Runaway = 2 Between 1980 – 2012:
“There were 1,017 Aboriginal female victims of homicide during this period, which represents roughly 16% of all female homicides — far greater than their representation in Canada’s female population as described above.” Stats:
“The number of Aboriginal female victims of homicide has remained relatively constant while the number of non-Aboriginal female victims has been declining.”
“Aboriginal women accounted for 8% of female victims in 1984 as compared to 23% in 2012.” (They attribute this to the decrease of non-aboriginal female homicides)
“The Aboriginal female homicide rate per 100,000 population dropped from 7.60 to 4.45 between 1996 and 2011.”
Cause of Death:
Beating: Aboriginal women, approximately one-third 32% / Non-Aboriginal: 17%
(They say further research needs to be done to understand differences.)
Location of killing is relatively the same except non-Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed at home, while Aboriginal women are twice as likely to be killed in an ‘open area’.
“Other assault” and “sexual assault” offences more likely to occur in Aboriginal murders.
“It should be noted that only a small proportion of Aboriginal female homicides (approximately 2%) were described by investigators as linked to the drug trade or gang or organized crime activity.”
Relationship stats are generally the same, except non-Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by a spouse, and Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by an acquaintance.
89% of the women’s killers (all groups) were male, no surprise there.
Offenders killing Aboriginal women more likely to have a criminal record, less likely to be employed and more likely to be on social assistance or disability. They were also more likely to have consumed some intoxicant substance. They are less likely to have a mental disorder (10%) compared to NAF offenders (20%).
“The most frequent motive in Aboriginal female homicides was “argument or quarrel” representing 40% of all incidents (compared to 23% for non-Aboriginal females).”
“The data collected indicates that police solve almost 9 of every 10 female homicides, regardless of victim origin (88% for Aboriginal female homicides, 89% for non-Aboriginal female homicides). Other factors, such as victim involvement in certain occupations, may reduce the chance their murder will be solved.”
Aboriginal women are less likely to be employed, more likely to be on a form of assistance, and more likely to support themselves through ‘illegal means’ (by 10%).
Aboriginal women are more likely to have consumed an intoxicating substance before death (63% to 20% for NAF). Sex trade:
“Aboriginal female homicide victims involved was slightly higher than that of non-Aboriginal female homicide victims — 12% versus 5% respectively — which are both relatively small components of the available population.
As a result, it would be inappropriate to suggest any significant difference in the prevalence of sex trade workers among Aboriginal female homicide victims as compared to non-Aboriginal female homicide victims.”
(How disappointing for all the rednecks who claimed the vast majority of these women were prostitutes and therefore ‘did it to themselves’!)
Aboriginal women being slightly double NAF in the sex trade is worth noting, but hardly significant in terms of overall missing and murdered indigenous women. (There’s also no indication of the general number of NAF in prostitution). Even if we account for offenders being Johns, what of the others?
Then we come to the RCMP “efforts” to be implemented, to summarize:
– Partnering with local and municipal forces for unresolved cases – “Prevention efforts” aka targeting high risk communities – “Increasing public awareness”
Here’s my favorite bit for ‘Strengthening the Data’: “To continue to ensure there is solid data available for operational decision-making and to ensure RCMP members record the most relevant information possible for Statistics Canada, the RCMP will roll out changes to how it collects data on homicides and missing persons. As a result of this project, the RCMP will ensure that Aboriginal origin is captured as part of Homicide Surveys.” You mean it hasn’t been up to this time?
Another gold bit:
“Second, the use of the term “Aboriginal” as a descriptor has different definitions in the different data sources that make up this research project. For example, CPIC captures Aboriginal as an “ethnicity” whereas Statistics Canada’s official position is that “Aboriginal” is not an ethnicity but rather an origin. Where possible, the above report attempts to use Statistics Canada compliant language.”
And that’s it. That is the end of the overview. Here is what I take away from this:
1) I basically learned nothing and the five minutes I spent reading a quick Statistics Canada page (for the last post on this topic) was just as enlightening in much less time.
2) We still don’t know why Aboriginal women are being killed at a higher rate, and there’s no real attempt to pinpoint a cause. With such a small percentage in the sex trade, what about the others?
3) I am left with the same conclusion as my last post: are the “acquaintances” Aboriginal or not? That will explain the discrepancy. 4) The only thing you can really gather from this overview is that a bunch of drunk, unemployed losers, on welfare and disability, are getting pissed off and into “arguments” with Aboriginal women and then beating them to death.
Really? That’s it? A bunch of pathetic slobs getting drunk and killing Native women?
Here is what cakers have said: it’s their own family members killing them (not true). That turned into: it’s their own boyfriends and husbands (turns out less than NAFs). Then: they were all prostitutes (again not true).
How can they be 4% of the female population yet over 10% of the missing women? How can they be 4% of the population, yet account for 10-16% of the murders (up to 23%)? Especially when they are less likely to be killed by a spouse or family member than NAF? Why are they most likely to be killed in Yukon or Saskatchewan (with a white majority population)?
Does it all boil down to some loser leeches who feel big by treading on their “inferiors”? Who are these fat grease-stained slobs anyway? Aboriginal? White? Other?
I really don’t feel that I’ve come away with any answers from this. I did get to read some stats and look at some fancy charts though.
Why won’t the RCMP answer The Toronto Star’s questions? RCMP won’t comment on discrepancies in the Missing Database (Globe & Mail)
The following quotes and information are taken from the 2014 report: Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Aboriginal Women and Girls: Literature Review and Key Informant Interviews
This is an attempt to narrow down the report to the most pertinent information.
Background “According to the 2006 Canadian Census, Aboriginal peoples (North American Indian -First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) made up 3.8% of the total population, with just over half (51.2%) of the Aboriginal population being female. This is nearly 4% of the total female population in Canada.
Although they are only a small percentage of the population, Aboriginal women and girls are severely over represented in sexual exploitation and trafficking in comparison to the general Canadian population (Seshia, 2005; Sethi, 2007; Saewyc et al, 2008; Sikka, 2009; Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005; Ursel et al, 2007; Barrett, 2010)” (pg 8) “As part of her literature review on Aboriginal adolescent girls in the United States of America (USA), Pierce’s 2012 research paper explored recent Canadian research. Also grouping prostitution and human trafficking for sexual exploitation together, her review of Canadian literature identifies “Vancouver, British Columbia; Ottawa, Ontario; and Winnipeg, Manitoba as major centers for the sexual trafficking of Aboriginal women and children (p. 39)”
“Winnipeg: Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs (2010) released a document citing a Government of Canada website (www.stopsexwithkids.ca) identifying that of the approximately 400 children and youth exploited in Winnipeg every year, a high of 70-80 percent were of Aboriginal descent (and 72% of the 400 had been processed through Child and Family Services).” “A 2010 extensive literature review by Barrett identified and explored promising practices for the prevention of human trafficking in Canada for the Status of Women Canada. Barrett stated that “studies on human trafficking in Canada conclude[d] that the majority of people trafficked within Canada are Aboriginal women and children victims of sex trafficking” (p. iii)” (pg 9)
History of Abuse
“Below are some of the highlights of the experiences of the experiential Aboriginal women in the report:
79% had been abused as children (on average by 4 perpetrators).
Over two thirds of the women had family who had attended boarding schools.
92% had been raped.
84% had been physically assaulted.
72% experienced traumatic brain injuries in prostitution.
98% were either currently or previously homeless.
52% at the time of the interview had PTSD; 71% had symptoms of dissociation.
80% had used outpatient substance abuse services; 77% had used homeless shelters; 65% had used domestic violence services; and 33% had used sexual assault services.
92% wanted to escape prostitution. (Farley et al, 2011, p. 3) Additionally, from the pool of participants, thirty-nine percent identified as prostituting as minors (below the age of eighteen) – which means they were trafficked.” Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
“In a 2005 paper examining prostituted and trafficked women, out of the one hundred participants, including both First Nations and non-First Nations, 72% qualified for PTSD, which is “among the highest reported in populations where PTSD has been studied, including battered women, combat veterans, childhood trauma survivors, rape survivors, and torture survivors” (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005, p. 255) . Those who are prostituted and sexually trafficked often experience extreme and intentional violence, abuse and torture. It is no surprise that these women and girls fulfill the criteria for PTSD. Such evidence suggests the difficulty of trying to move on from sexual exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution.”
“The over-representation of Aboriginal women and girls in sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada has been explored on repeated occasion through a span of years. However, the identified root causes never seem to change. These are the impact of colonialism on Aboriginal societies, the legacies of the residential schools and their inter-generational effects, family violence, childhood abuse, poverty, homelessness, lack of basic survival necessities, race and gender-based discrimination, lack of education, migration, and substance addictions.
In some Aboriginal communities, these root causes coupled with rural/remote living conditions creates a complex environment that contributes to an increased risk among Aboriginal women and girls in being sexually exploited and trafficked. Also, some of the cultural aspects of rural environments make it difficult for Aboriginal communities and individuals to address this issue, prevent it and/or heal from it. Factors such as isolation, poverty, lack of support networks, lack of education and cultural activities further enhance the vulnerabilities of Aboriginal women and girls when they migrate to cities (Kingsley & Mark, 2001; Barrett, 2010; Urban Native Youth Association, 2001; Seshia, 2005; Farley & Lynne, 2005).” (pg 11)
As noted in the report, most of the issues are also common to non-Aboriginal women in prostitution and trafficking: sexual abuse, traumatic childhoods, poverty, low education levels, substance abuse, addictions, lack of resources.
Introduction into both has common themes, including: pimps (originally acting as caretakers, ‘job providers’ or other concerned benevolent characters), boyfriends (feigning love and comfort at the beginning stages); drug suppliers (creating addictions in order to control the women physically and financially); and criminals holding them against their will through coercion and threats of harm.
Generally cakers will argue that Aboriginal women were abused by “their own” and so it’s not their [cakers] “fault” or responsibility; as such, they shift the burden back onto the women. While inter-familial violence is a big issue inside Aboriginal communities, these women are abused just as much (if not more) by white Canadians. This happens through the johns [customers] who are predominately white, and sexual abuse in foster care; a very slim minority of foster carers are Aboriginal.
Correlation to Foster Care
“While the research does not say that Aboriginal children who go into child welfare services and foster care will be sexually exploited, there is significant co-relational data to link heightened vulnerability to being sexually exploited and trafficked with being involved in child welfare services. TERF performs an intake evaluation on their participants and their findings are that: 74% of TERF youth are involved with Child and Family Services. With an average of 5 placements in their short lives.
68% of TERF adults were clients of Child and Family Services as youth. With an average of 6.5 placements during their youth.
(Ursel et al, 2007, p. iii) Saewyc et al’s 2008 study, compiling data from five different youth health surveys, and including 1,845 youth across British Columbia, (and of which Aboriginal youth were found to make up one third to one-half of the sexually exploited participants across the surveys) found that many participants had had experience with child welfare services.
For some, foster care or a group home was their first site of sexual exploitation: 14% in 2000, 10% in 2001, and 12% in 2006 (p. 23). The researchers further explored the relation of youth in care and found that “sexually exploited youth were significantly more likely to have been in care than their non-exploited peers” (p. 40). The researchers specified further:
Among younger street-involved youth in 2006, 44% of sexually exploited youth had been in care, compared to 33% of non-exploited youth. Similarly, among older street-involved youth in 2001, 66% of exploited youth had been in care, compared to 41% of non-exploited youth. Youth in custody in 2000 had even higher rates: 75% of sexually exploited youth had been in care, while 59% of non-exploited youth had been in care. (Saewyc et al. 2008, p. 40) (p33)” The reality for many Aboriginal women and girls in Canada are that they are victims and survivors of domestic sex trafficking. Aboriginal women and girls are being targeted for sexual exploitation and relocated from their communities, homes, foster homes, to and within urban centres in Canada. In general, the high rates of migration from a reserve (rural area) to an urban centre also poses an increased risk and entry point through which vulnerable Aboriginal women and girls may be exploited. The promises by sex traffickers to provide shelter and employment in off – reserve communities can lead young Aboriginal girls to feel that they can escape poverty or a potential problem situation at home. They willingly leave their home and community only to discover that the promise was too good to be true and they are forced into sex slavery. They are manipulated and lured by sex traffickers. Many Aboriginal girls go missing from communities or in urban centres and they are viewed as runaways, or simply fall off the radar. The misinterpretations of misconceptions on the definition regarding cross-border movement and coercion leaves many trafficked Aboriginal women and girls unprotected and neglected. (p 35)”
I looked up information regarding Aboriginal children in foster care. They overwhelmingly represent the bulk of foster children:
“… aboriginal children made up seven per cent of the country’s child population, but accounted for 48 per cent of foster children.”
Of course, cakers didn’t begin to take census information on foster children until 2011! Subsequently, it’s difficult to ascertain certain things because they – you guessed it – don’t have the data!
From the data in this report alone, sexual abuse of foster children can be assumed to fluctuate between 10-15%. Keep in mind this is only self-reported data from women who went on to become prostitutes or trafficking victims (the small group surveyed here); not counting the unreported incidents and women who survived childhood relatively unscathed. The number could reasonably be assumed at approximately 1 in 5 aboriginal children being abused in care. Curious, I looked up statistics and lo and behold:
A recent report found shocking levels of sexual abuse in British Columbia. And:”More than 60 per cent of the victims were Indigenous girls, the report found, even though Indigenous youth only make up a quarter of the youth in foster care in B.C.”
Indigenous girls are up to 4x more likely to be sexually abused. I would like to give more information but you know the old favorite caker standby: we don’t have the data!
National Resources RCMP’s Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre:
“In fulfilling these priorities they have launched a campaign, “I am not for Sale” with educational tools aimed at Canada’s youth. They have also released a report, Human Trafficking in Canada. Regrettably, both of these initiatives are lacking a specific mention of Aboriginal peoples. The report goes so far as to include specific chapters linking Eastern European, Asian, and African women to human trafficking in Canada, and yet there is no specific mention of Aboriginal women and girls. Instead of putting forth the needed awareness and identification of the importance of Aboriginal women and girls’ sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada, we are instead left with a stereotyped view of human trafficking that largely passes over the domestic nature of this crime in Canada.” (p 37)
(It would make sense to aim your awareness-campaign towards the most trafficked group, would it not? But this is the RCMP!)
“Further challenging the RCMP’s task to address human trafficking is a lack of funding when it comes to Aboriginal women and girls. In a Committee report of the Parliament of Canada, it is reported that Sergeant Lori Lowe had advised the Committee, “that the RCMP’s National Aboriginal Policing Service had an interest in examining the trafficking of Aboriginal women for the purpose of sexual exploitation, but that the RCMP lacked funding and human resources to be able to carry out such research” (Standing Committee on the Status of Women, 2007, p. 10). Considering the prevalence of Aboriginal women and girls as victims of sexual exploitation, this is a funding and resource deficiency that should be sufficiently addressed so that the RCMP is properly informed on the issue.”
Of course cakers don’t have the funding! And without the funding they can’t carry out research, which of course means solid information and provable statistics; they can fall back on their favorite excuse: lack of data! Why even have a unit if you can’t fund resources for the number one victim group?
BC’s Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons
“In line with some of the suggestions put forth earlier in this paper, the OCTIP engages in significant public education endeavours on human trafficking. Networking and collaborating with Aboriginal communities is to be applauded, and their approach of education about human trafficking directly answers to calls in the literature for such practices. However, while they recognize the priority of human trafficking for Aboriginal women and youth, currently the organization is without a strategic plan on how to address the issue. It is also unclear how, from their report, they plan to leverage the relationship-building with Aboriginal communities to combat Aboriginal sexual exploitation in a systematic way.”
National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking
“The Canadian government released their National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (NAPCH) by Public Safety in 2012 …
In a testament to how prevalent domestic trafficking is, the report identified that, of the cases waiting to be processed, ninety percent were regarded as domestic human trafficking (National Action Plan, p. 8). The report identifies the disparities in the current protection system, confessing a knowledge gap in how human trafficking in Aboriginal communities manifests and takes shape (National Action Plan, p. 12). In their 2012 strategy, the only suggestion to address gaps in this area is that there needs to be enhanced engagement with Aboriginal organizations. More recently, Public Safety Canada tendered a call for proposals titled, Research: Trafficking of Aboriginal Women and Girls: Trends and Issues. At the time of this writing, this research is currently being carried out.” (p 39)
Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking Act, 2012
“In addition to this, the Act also provides the victim with recourse to sue their perpetrator in Tort Law over the harm caused by their actions. While a valid effort, an analysis of Aboriginal contexts quickly raises some problem areas …
… suing requires a lawyer, and a lawyer requires fees. Requiring Aboriginal women and girls to fund their pursuit of justice as trafficking victims is problematic. Considering that Aboriginal women and girls are among the poorest of the poor, this may be a very unaffordable option to pursue their rights.
Considering the widespread sexual exploitation of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada as a domestic trafficking practice, it would seem logical that any anti-human trafficking endeavours in Canada would have this consideration as one of its key understandings and act upon it. Yet we see from the above examples that it is quite often simply not the case. The Manitoba Act is the only one in existence in Canada.” (p 39)
Victims by “choice”
“Throughout the three articles, the collective argument of the researchers are that the prevalence of sexual abuse suffered by these women as children, their on-going exploitation until they hit the age of 18 (at which point Canadian law, law enforcement, and civil society seem to deem it a ‘choice’), their poverty, and their lack of alternatives can only logically and ethically mean that it is not a choice, they are being exploited, by pimp, madam, or john. In the 2003 article, which was a research endeavour exploring the roots of ‘prostitution’ in nine different countries, these authors make the contention that genuine consent cannot exist in prostitution. Real consent requires: “physical safety, equal power with customers, and real alternatives.” (Farley et al., 2003, p. 65)” (p 40)
“Historical views of Aboriginal females as sexually available and as criminals carries over into some modern views. Added to this image are the impacts of colonization, residential school trauma and intergenerational effect, and the breakdown of traditional communities as a result of these pressures and impacts (Sikka, 2009), resulting in inter-related factors increasing the over-representation of these women and girls in Canada’s domestic sex trade. However, these factors do not move these women into the category of what is popularly and legally considered trafficking, “thus, things that happen to [these women and girls] are not viewed as exploitation or trafficking in persons, but rather as a natural consequence of the life that she has chosen to occupy. The image of the trafficked ‘victim,’ therefore, does not include her story” (Sikka, 2009,p. 2). ” (p 41)
“If, in attempting to address women who have been sexually trafficked, we ignore women working in prostitution who have not been relocated for the purposes of sexual exploitation, and we ignore women who have no pimp but are daily exploited by johns, then it is NWAC’s stance that such a perspective would be unethical to addressing sexually exploited women, and such endeavours would be built to greatly limit the addressing of the real society issues and factors that make up human trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation in Canada.”
Legalized prostitution: a failed project
“Illegal prostitution, in the form of human trafficking, continues to take place in countries, such as Germany, where it was legalized in 2002. Two-thirds of the estimated 400,000 sex workers in Germany travel from overseas to the country (Osborne, 2013) where the system of legalized prostitution provides a cover for traffickers to mask indications of international human trafficking, allowing women in large numbers to be brought to Germany and sexually exploited (Unprotected: How legalizing prostitution has failed, 2013). When confronted by police, many workers from outside of Germany were told what to say by their pimps to avoid suspicion. Since the legalization of prostitution in Germany, the number of trafficked victims has increased from an estimate of 9,870 – 19,740 in 2001 to 12,350 – 24,700 in 2003 (German Federal Police Office Report, 2009, p.75). The legalized prostitution system has provided for a great increase in trafficking victims in an unhealthy dynamic that seems to be increasing the number of women who are forced and trapped within a legalized system.
Quit talking, start doing
“Perhaps it is time to reframe the discussion on sex trafficking in Canada and greatly increase the emphasis on exploring Aboriginal over-representation, exiting, and prevention as opposed to repeatedly ‘discovering’ high Aboriginal representation in research on Canada’s domestic sex trafficking and sexual exploitation. Some of this would be addressed through pursuing a national research agenda that would present a comprehensive picture of Aboriginal representation in Canada’s domestic sex trafficking. Partly it would depend on recognition in the ranks of policy development and implementation that Aboriginal contexts should be a priority. It is not our contention to displace others who are suffering in sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada.
However, from our research, and that of others, findings show that Aboriginal women and girls are drastically over-represented in sex trafficking to the point where they seem to be the dominant representatives in some regions of Canada, and not far behind that in other places. With Aboriginal women and girls making up such a small segment of Canada’s population, this over-representation is unacceptable and requires immediate attention.”
Caker question: What’s the difference between ‘red-skins’?
“The prevailing practice in research focusing on Aboriginal women and girls in sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in Canada uses a “pan-Aboriginal” approach which amalgamates First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples into one group. This is both troubling and problematic. It does not fully recognize the cultural diversity, distinctness, and identities of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples.”
Buying sex: interconnection
“As I’ve studied and learned from women who’ve been exploited and prostituted – most from the time they were children – it has become clear to me that trafficking, prostitution, strip clubs and pornography are all interconnected. Unless we are willing to talk about and address each of these, and in particular, the demand that drives them, we won’t solve the problem of sexual exploitation.”
Ms. Beazley further expressed that, “Pornography teaches entitlement – the idea that sex is a need, and that men have a right to it on their terms at any time, which legitimizes the buying of sex and leads us to accept that there should be a class of women made available for purchase. Porn feeds the demand for paid sex – which funnels women into prostitution. Men consume porn and seek out the sex they believe other men are having and feel they too are entitled to have. As violence and degradation in porn have become commonplace, this is mirrored in the lived experiences of women in prostitution. And all of this fuels sex trafficking. Increased demand for paid sex always leads to an increase in trafficking. Trafficking victims are exploited in pornography, and filmed sex acts are sometimes used as a means of coercion and control. Porn is also used to groom and train trafficking victims.” John entitlement: violence
“We know from the research that a very high number of Johns are violent (this includes both physical and verbal acts of aggression). High-volume participant studies return high reports of violence: 90% of 100 women (52 of which were First Nations) had been physically assaulted in prostitution (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005); 92% reported being raped in prostitution – over half were raped 5-10 times, 15% of them raped over 20 times; 84% reported being physically assaulted while prostituting, and of the assaults, Johns were the perpetrators for 44% of the attacks (Farley et al, 2011, p. 28). While we recognize that there is a distinction between prostitution and trafficking, as prostitution is deemed non-forced and trafficking as forced, we think it is fair to work on the inference that, if different, trafficking victims would face more, not less violence. For this reason, studies on violence against prostitutes would still have bearing on people who are sexually trafficked.” (pg 46)
“From their perspective, it would seem that the fundamental approach in Canada was misdirected, and that blame for trafficking fell squarely on the shoulders of trafficked women and girls. This was reflected in the fact that prosecuting of prostitution where currently women faced incarceration for acts of prostitution while the johns were sent to john school (a place where johns are educated on prostitution such that they are discouraged from engaging in it again). Incarceration only further marginalizes and discriminates against these vulnerable women and girls and makes difficult their exiting of prostitution for safer, more reliable employment options. The law does not seem to be effective in pursuing pimps and johns. In their experience, the interviewees indicated that judgment, on the part of police and media, seemed to be a very relevant factor in terms of whether police perform fairly when it comes to missing and trafficked Aboriginal girls. The police are more likely to arrest the women over the men. Some may have thought it was a form of helping these women.”
Torture vs Assault
“Additionally, we would like to specifically address the aspect of torture in sexual exploitation and trafficking. Torture that occurs in the context of intimate relationships and trafficking is dismissed as an assault or domestic violence. Two of the key informants that were interviewed spoke of how disappointed they are in Canada because of the present government’s refusal to change section 269.1 of the criminal code so that a private individual (a non-State actor) who commits classic torture can be criminally charged for the crime of torture they perpetrate; making such a change to the criminal code was a recommendation given to Canada by the UN Committee against Torture in 2012. They explained further that the criminal code only criminalizes torture perpetrated by State actors such as military and police personnel. Currently, the definition of human trafficking is about perpetrators who work to enslave a victim in the ways described in Canadian law and the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress & Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. The interviewees strongly emphasized that “once enslaved the reality is that many are tortured and Canadian law does not provide for holding such torturers criminally accountable for the torture they inflict; they must be, to eliminate discrimination under the law and support the human and legal rights of women and girls so victimized to speak their truth, be heard, and seek justice.” (pg 73)
Finally I will include what seem to be the most relevant and common sense solutions recommended for implementation:
Social Support Programs
“As much as is possible and practical, involve experiential survivors in the running of support programs and services. According to previous research, this is one of the best ways to make positive connections with women and girls currently being exploited, which reinforces their own commitment for and belief in changing their lives for the better.
Involve experiential women (former and, if possible, current) in the development of new programs and support services; showing them how important their voices and input are helps build confidence while ensuring the program will connect with them and meet their needs.
Aboriginal women and girls need safe housing and safe spaces; homelessness and a lack of safe places greatly increase the vulnerability of these women and girls. Immediate funding and long-term support are needed to provide for this housing shortage
Provide childcare for participants in programs. Many of these women and young girls are attempting to raise children; without adequately providing for their childcare needs, they may be unable to attend or effectively engage with any support programs and services.”
Because the overwhelming majority of cakers are too lazy, racist and stupid to read a simple report, I will summarize and interpret:
– As poverty statistics show: Aboriginal people all over the country overwhelmingly live in poverty and often third world conditions (see: north, rural).
– Most Aboriginal women grow up in dysfunctional homes with cycles of family violence and addictions; these are in part a result of a century of child sexual abuse, rape, and torture at residential schools.
While cakers will tell the communities to “get over it”, the last school closed in the 90s. For those who went to school during the 60s era and had children in the 80s, their offspring are somewhere in the late 20s to early 30s age-group; it is still fairly “new” inter-generational trauma.
-When Aboriginal girls are removed from their dysfunctional homes and placed in foster care (with “white parents”) they are at large risk of being sexually abused: 4x the average of non-indigenous girls, as many as 1 in 5 girls (likely more).
-After being abused at home, growing up in dysfunction, and/or being sexually abused in foster care, a significant portion go on to become addicted, homeless, or are “pimped” into prostitution or sexually trafficked. -Aboriginal women make up the majority of trafficked persons in Canada.
-Society then complains about the victims of “choice” when they go missing or are murdered, saying they “chose” to be victims, thereby dismissing their hardships and the systemic racism in Canada.
-The women are punished more often – and harsher – than the men who are “buying” them. Without demand there is no need for supply (as anyone fighting the “drug war” will tell you); it is a simple, well known principle.
It seems absurd to re-victimize the very people who have been downtrodden their whole lives, but this is what the Canadian system does.
So after non-aboriginal Canadians raped and abused the children at residential schools, they then are the majority of johns “buying” the children and women in Winnipeg, Vancouver, etc. They are also the majority sexually-abusing indigenous girls in foster care. Is it any wonder that the “Johns” or customers are never held to account, properly prosecuted or investigated? It’s no coincidence. It is easy to blame the victim for existing, for not “trying hard enough” to escape victimhood, while the perpetrators remain protected and unprosecuted.
Cakers … such nice people! In fact, they love to tell you how nice they are! They’re “not racist”. And of course they’re “less racist” than Americans (which the facts do not suggest), something they’ll point out should any criticisms arise.
I am going to review an article with some pretty typical caker attitudes so you can see what we’re dealing with here. The article is about Kevin Annett and the documentary Unrepentant (viewing it will help to better understand this post).
The following are quotes from residential school survivors featured in the documentary.
These are some of the stories relating to murder. Other stories include: sexual abuse, rape, physical abuse; electric-shocking, being experimented on; witnessing burials, finding bodies, being asked to dig graves; children freezing to death; babies being killed after birth – as the result of sexual intercourse between students and school patrons.
“But if you do believe these things, I’m afraid there are quite a few more things you are going to have to believe, because you can’t have it both ways. If Kevin Annett really is prize-worthy and courageous, you will also have to believe this:
One of Canada’s most respected First Nations’ leaders is trafficking in children from Northern British Columbia in a profitable pedophilia ring that’s run out of the West Hastings Street premises of the swish Vancouver Club. His clients are Vancouver judges, politicians, and church leaders.”
“The majority (91%) of victims of human trafficking reported by police between 2009 and 2014 knew the person accused of the crime. More specifically, the most common relationship between the victim and accused was a business relationship (23 %), followed by a casual acquaintance (22%), and a non-spousal intimate partner (18%).”
The vast majority of these victims were female (93%). Victims of human trafficking were generally young. Among victims of human trafficking reported between 2009 and 2014, close to half (47%) were between the ages of 18 and 24. Additionally, one-quarter (25%) of human trafficking victims were under the age of 18.”
— Trafficking in persons in Canada, 2014 (Statistics Canada)
Regarding high-profile clientele, this is not unheard of. A quick Google search will show countless scandals involving establishment figures in both politics and entertainment. See also:
This could go on and on, but a few links will suffice to prove the point. Does this mean the First Nations’ leader is guilty? No. But does it exonerate him? Not at all, as plenty of history and current events show the absolute possibility of the claim; it’s not at all ‘unbelievable’. Who would be a better choice of victim than poor, neglected Aboriginal children? (But I guess Terry thinks that Bill Cosby is just some nice old dad too, right?)
“Back in the 1930s, a team of German doctors arrived at the Kuper Island Indian residential school and began conducting strange medical experiments on the children. Employing large hypodermic needles, they injected some sort of toxin directly into the chests of the school’s young inmates, and several were killed as a result.”
In the 1930’s within the United States was the ‘German-American Bund‘: a pro-Nazi, quasi-military organization made up of supporters with mostly German ancestry. It was most active in the years preceding the USA’s entry in the Second World War.
Aside from this organization there were many others, and non-formal fascist Nazi-supporters in both the US and Canada. (Now this is where the cakers say “we had no Nazi sympathizers!” – just like their were none in the KKK, right cakers?)
“… established for the so-called Volksdeutsche (Germans who had been born outside the Reich). The Bund held monthly meetings for its members and staged pro-Nazi celebrations such as Hitler birthday parties; it imported and distributed Nazi propaganda materials to Germans and non-Germans alike ; it joined with other indigenous German-Canadian organizations and clubs to organize social events and to establish German language schools.
The second arm of the Canadian Nazi movement was a separate Nazi party organization (NSDAP). This group was composed of non-naturalized German Canadians and Reichsdeutsche (Germans born in Germany proper) residing in Canada who had applied for and been accepted into the National Socialist Party. Although frequent contact existed between the NSDAP units and the Bund (the two groups often combined to hold public displays and to promote common causes), efforts were made to keep the memberships separate.”
“The Canadian ranks of the Nazi Party were filled with persons born outside Canada. Reichsdeutsche made up the vast majority of the membership (seventy-eight of the eighty-eight). With regard to the members’ birthplace in Germany, Canada’s Nazis reflected a general balance. All the major German states such as Bavaria, Prussia, and Saxony as well as most of the important cities were represented.”
— Nazi Party Membership in Canada: A Profile
So what do we have here? We have pro-Nazi and Hitler sympathizers residing in Canada in the 1930’s, as well as American sympathizers down south. Is it possible they were willing to experiment on children? Well, it’s not out of the realm of possibility as in the early 1930’s the Nazis were already sterilizing the ‘undesirables’ and by the end of the 30’s they would be euthanizing the disabled.
“German proponents of eugenics were part of an international phenomenon… German biologist August Weissmann’s theory of “immutable germ plasm,” published in 1892, fostered growing international support for eugenics …
… Eugenicists more successfully promoted sterilization laws in individual provinces, cantons, or states in Canada, Switzerland, and the United States.”
— United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (Encyclopedia)
And again, just because the survivors now assume they were German, doesn’t mean these doctors were. They could have been other foreigners or people with heavy accents. A young, barely educated Native child is not going to know the difference, especially in a state of fear and shock.
Considering the general eugenics movements world wide at the time, and later events (I’ll touch on) does that mean we can state with certainty these things happened? No. But again, it’s not outside the realm of possibility.
“As recently as the 1950s and 1960s, aboriginal children at a Vancouver Island medical research facility were tortured with electrodes implanted in their skulls. At least one child was beaten to death with a whip fitted with razors.”
Consider the following history just south of the border: forced sterilizations of minorities (which included Native Americans into the 1980’s, and Mexican women into the 1970’s).
“In 1904, the Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples.”
“The Rockefeller Foundation helped found the German eugenics program and even funded the program that Josef Mengele worked in before he went to Auschwitz.”
“War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race” — Edwin Black
In the 1950’s-60’s these programs took place in the US:
– infecting women and disabled children with viral hepatitis
– injecting live cancer cells into prisoners
– testing nerve gases and toxic chemicals on US ships and their passengers
– radiation experiments
-giving iodine to babies
– Project GABRIEL
– Project SUNSHINE
-whole body radiation experiments on poor black cancer patients
“From 1950 through 1953, the U.S. Army sprayed chemicals over six cities in the United States and Canada, in order to test dispersal patterns of chemical weapons. Army records stated that the chemicals which were sprayed on the city of Winnipeg, Canada, included zinc cadmium sulfide, which was not thought to be harmful.”
— Operation LAC (Large Area Coverage)
This isn’t even a full list. And, as with the Nazi party and KKK, if it was happening south of the border there’s no reason to assume it wasn’t happening in Canada on at least a smaller level; especially considering American involvement in subjecting Canadian residents to testing without their knowledge.
As for ‘electrodes implanted in skulls’ … I doubt very much a child has the mental capacity to understand medical testing, especially when terrified or in a state of shock. What a survivor may remember can constitute abuse, even if he doesn’t have the specific medical terminology or recall of exact testing-details. Given the era, I don’t find the idea of medical testing on poor Indian children to be beyond reasonable doubt.
“At the Hobbema and Saddle Lake Indian residential schools in Alberta, children were incinerated in furnaces. At St. Anne’s Indian residential school in Fort Albany, Ontario, children were executed in an electric chair. At McGill University in Montreal, there is a mass grave containing the bodies of aboriginal children killed in experiments undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency’s top-secret MK-ULTRA program.”
I don’t know the exact details of this, so I can only comment on what I’ve seen in the documentary until I research further. I do know that Nazis managed to kill and incinerate millions of people, so the prospect of a cover up (burning bodies) at some schools isn’t beyond reason. I sometimes meet Holocaust deniers who love to say “but where are all the bodies?”
“Cameron’s experiments, known as MK-ULTRA subproject 68, were partially funded by the CIA and the Canadian government, and are widely known for their use of LSD, barbiturates, and amphetamines on patients. In the media, they were known as the “mind control” studies done at McGill and were reported as a brainwashing conspiracy from the CIA and the Canadian government. For journalists, the story was a goldmine. LSD use in a CIA experiment was an angle no sensationalist media could reject, especially in the anti-drug frenzy of the 1960s. However, these studies were much more complex than a Timothy Leary scare in la belle ville.
At its worst, the prolonged periods of sensory deprivation and induced sleep used in the experiments left many patients in a child-like mental state, even years after the experiments were finalized. Even today, remnants of Cameron’s experiments at the Allan Memorial appear in torture methods at places like Guantanamo Bay.
… In a report to the Canadian government in the mid 1980s, sources reveal that Cameron was “ruthless, determined, aggressive, and domineering … He seemed not to have the ability to deeply empathize with their [patients] problems or their situation.”
When the whistle blew on Allan Memorial, Cameron’s stern portrait turned into the evil stare of a “mad scientist,” as media reports explained the nature of his research.
… The experiments done at McGill were part of the larger MK-ULTRA project led by Sidney Gottlieb of the CIA. In 1963, the year in which MK-ULTRA ended, the CIA compiled all the research into a torture manual called the Kubark Counterintelligence Interrogation Handbook. Yes, a “torture manual” that would eventually define the agency’s interrogation methods and training programs throughout the developing world.”
Could Native children have been exposed? It’s possible … at this point, I wouldn’t suggest laughingly (like some) that it wasn’t. Could children who were killed through neglect or otherwise have been ‘disposed of’ in a manner as to hide evidence? Sure, it’s entirely possible. Were children exposed to abuse, experimentation, etc., and later linked those memories with this program? Entirely possible.
“These are just a few of the stories Annett has been circulating since the early 1990s. He has failed to produce a shred of evidence. RCMP investigators who have looked into Annett’s allegations always come up empty. Some of these stories the RCMP hasn’t investigated because nobody’s reported them, for reasons Annett explains as a distrust of the police.”
First, I’m quite sure that when you’ve been mocked, laughed at and disregarded your whole life – you aren’t going to want to share your story with the people who have neglected or openly opposed you. If these survivors have undergone all of that in the name of ‘government and authority’, it’s quite understandable why they would have issues trusting authorities, namely the police.
In fact, right here in front of us we have a whole article essentially mocking their claims (they made on video tape, in a documentary about their experiences) and suggesting it’s ridiculous. Is it any wonder they have lost faith, and don’t reach out for help?
As for the investigations, I would love the details! Perhaps the RCMP can fill us in. I know children and women who have been molested or raped and made formal complaints the same year as the incidents occurred – yet nothing was done because “there was no evidence” and therefor formal charges wouldn’t stick.
I’m not sure how people expect the victims in this situation to come up with evidence 40 to 50 years after the fact? The Native children didn’t have access to paper records and there’s no doubt the institutions likely destroyed most of what was incriminating, if it was ever marked down to begin with.
The writer then goes on to say:
“It matters because the thousands of aboriginal people who really did suffer unspeakable torment in residential schools deserve something rather more from us than our complicity in the act of dumping their very real suffering down a rabbit hole into the same parallel universe where you’ll find alien abductions, Masonic plots, crop circles, and 9-11 conspiracies.”
I’m not sure how it qualifies as a ‘conspiracy theory’ when it’s an assertion made by an individual (or group) who claims to have witnessed it first-hand? Which brings us to a fork in our conclusions: 1) either they are crazy lying drunk ol’ Indians, or 2) they are telling the truth, as best they can remember it.
So which is it? While we’re busy “respecting” the survivors of residential schools who fit the government narrative – what about the ones who are claiming to have witnessed murders, to have buried bodies, to have seen children killed and know there are unmarked graves?! How do we “respect” their truth? Right, by dismissing it! Wouldn’t want the cakers to look bad, would we?
Then we get to the crux of the issue: the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.
“If the Truth and Reconciliation Commission gets dragged into the strange, alternative reality where Annett and his followers thrive, the commission’s purpose could be easily defeated. If that happens, we will have lost an historic opportunity to see justice properly done in finally turning the page on one of the darkest and most disgraceful chapters in Canadian history.”
Wouldn’t want to interrupt that government-settlement process, eh? Wouldn’t want to disrupt the “closing of this chapter” so we can all merrily move on, eh?
“It matters to me because I can count several old friends and colleagues among the people who show up as villains, collaborators and stooges in Annett’s conspiracy, and I know a thing or two about Annett from when we were both young socialists, back in the 1970s.”
Right, because people we know personally can’t possibly commit crimes, can they? Just like the serial killer next door with a dozen bodies in the basement and the neighbor goes, “but he was such a nice fellow!” Or the wife about her husband, “he could never molest our daughter – he’s not capable of such things!“
One does not need to exaggerate or embellish anything about what happened in those places.”
No, one does not. And if this were Annett saying it alone, I would be more skeptical. But when individuals come together and make these claims I highly doubt they are embellishing their own stories – to what end? But it comes full circle again: whether you choose to believe people who claim to have lived certain events, or not. He goes on:
“There were front-page stories a century ago, too. In 1897, senior Indian Affairs officials started blowing the whistle on the cavernous, shoddily-built, creaking institutions, pointing out that you couldn’t have built more efficient incubation vectors for contagious disease, and for mass death, if you tried.
Back then, P.H. Bryce, the Indian department’s chief medical officer, conducted a study of 1,500 children interned in 15 different Indian residential schools across Canada. He found that one in four of the children never made it out alive. A separate study of the Kuper Island school found that four of every 10 children sent there over a 25-year period never survived to graduate.
This is sufficiently damning. It is not necessary to assert, as Annett does, that infectious diseases were deliberately employed as part of a plot to “cull” Canada’s aboriginal population. Everybody knows what happened. It is no secret, and is not even a secret that there are mass graves.”
No, not everybody knows what happened. What an ABSURD assertion! In fact, I would venture to guess that 90% or more Canadians do NOT know there were “mass graves”. As for Bryce:
He himself said “conditions are being deliberately created” to spread disease. It doesn’t get much clearer than that.
“It is readily acknowledged that Indian children lose their natural resistance to illness by habituating so closely in the residential schools, and that they die at a much higher rate than in their villages. But this alone does not justify a change in the policy of this Department, which is geared towards a final solution of our Indian Problem.”
Department of Indian Affairs Superintendent D.C. Scott to B.C. Indian Agent-General Major D. McKay, DIA Archives, RG 1-Series 12 April 1910
“Could it not be contrived to send the small pox among the disaffected tribes of Indians? We must on this occasion use every stratagem in our power to reduce them.”
“P.S. I will try to inocculate [sic] the Indians by means of Blankets that may fall in their hands, taking care however not to get the disease myself. As it is pity to oppose good men against them, I wish we could make use of the Spaniard’s Method, and hunt them with English Dogs. Supported by Rangers, and some Light Horse, who would I think effectively extirpate or remove that Vermine.”
“P.S. You will Do well to try to Innoculate [sic] the Indians by means of Blankets, as well as to try Every other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race. I should be very glad your Scheme for Hunting them Down by Dogs could take Effect, but England is at too great a Distance to think of that at present.”
But the writer goes on to dismissively wave off “conspiracy theories” about the purposeful extermination of Indians through disease … because if the cakers don’t have log books with date stamps and signatures on them then “it didn’t happen” in their fevered pro-Canadiana dreams.
Finally the warbling is rounded down to one comment I can agree on:
“After all this suffering, the very least we owe the dead, and the living, is the truth.”
Indeed. And I do believe the survivors and their stories. If they say they were molested and raped – I believe them. If they say their friends went missing or showed up dead – I believe them. If they claim to have witnessed something as shocking as murder – I believe them. If even a portion of them think there are still unanswered questions, cover ups, or purposeful disinformation – I support them in their quest to uncover the truth, whatever that may be.
One thing is for certain: smug, patronizing caker attitudes stink!