RCMP Overview: Missing & Murdered Aboriginal Women

I would like access to the full report (not just the overview) but this will have to do for now.

LINK / PDF  (Quotes below)


“Police-recorded incidents of Aboriginal female homicides and unresolved missing Aboriginal females in this review total 1,181 – 164 missing and 1,017 homicide victims.

There are 225 unsolved cases of either missing or murdered Aboriginal females: 105 missing for more than 30 days as of November 4, 2013, whose cause of disappearance was categorized at the time as “unknown” or “foul play suspected” and 120 unsolved homicides between 1980 and 2012.

The total indicates that Aboriginal women are over-represented among Canada’s murdered and missing women.

There are similarities across all female homicides. Most homicides were committed by men and most of the perpetrators knew their victims — whether as an acquaintance or a spouse.

The majority of all female homicides are solved (close to 90%) and there is little difference in solve rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal victims.”

Information sourcing:

“What this project did differently was to supplement publicly available data with a comprehensive extract of information from law enforcement holdings from across all police jurisdictions in Canada. This fills a significant gap.”

“The RCMP has almost completed cross-referencing the data it collected from police records with NWAC and Dr. Pearce’s research. Reconciliation to date has been valuable in establishing these findings and improving police record data quality.”

“The total of missing Aboriginal females was based primarily on a report of all women listed as missing for more than 30 days across all police jurisdictions on the Canadian Police Information Centre (CPIC) system as of November 4, 2013.”

Violence against Aboriginal women:

“They are at a higher risk of being victims of violence than non-Aboriginal females … 

The rate of victimization among Aboriginal females was close to three times higher than that of non-Aboriginal females.”

 “… there were 164 missing Aboriginal females as of November 4, 2013. They make up approximately 11.3% of the total number of missing females (1,455 total).”

[4.3% of female population = 11.3% of missing females]

Police estimates for the missing women:

Uknown = 61 / Foul Play = 44 / Accident = 45 / Lost or wandered off = 12 / Runaway = 2

Between 1980 – 2012:

“There were 1,017 Aboriginal female victims of homicide during this period, which represents roughly 16% of all female homicides — far greater than their representation in Canada’s female population as described above.”


“The number of Aboriginal female victims of homicide has remained relatively constant while the number of non-Aboriginal female victims has been declining.”

 “Aboriginal women accounted for 8% of female victims in 1984 as compared to 23% in 2012.” (They attribute this to the decrease of non-aboriginal female homicides)

“The Aboriginal female homicide rate per 100,000 population dropped from 7.60 to 4.45 between 1996 and 2011.”

Cause of Death:

Beating: Aboriginal women, approximately one-third 32% / Non-Aboriginal: 17%

Stabbing: Aboriginal 31%, / Non-Aboriginal: 27%

Shooting: Aboriginal 16% /Non-Aboriginal 26%

Strangled/Suffocated/Drowned: Aboriginal 13% / Non-Aboriginal: 22%

(They say further research needs to be done to understand differences.)

Location of killing is relatively the same except non-Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed at home, while Aboriginal women are twice as likely to be killed in an ‘open area’.

Related Criminality:

“Other assault” and “sexual assault” offences more likely to occur in Aboriginal murders.


“It should be noted that only a small proportion of Aboriginal female homicides (approximately 2%) were described by investigators as linked to the drug trade or gang or organized crime activity.”


Relationship stats are generally the same, except non-Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by a spouse, and Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by an acquaintance. 

89% of the women’s killers (all groups) were male, no surprise there.

Offenders killing Aboriginal women more likely to have a criminal record, less likely to be employed and more likely to be on social assistance or disability. They were also more likely to have consumed some intoxicant substance.

They are less likely to have a mental disorder (10%) compared to NAF offenders (20%).

“The most frequent motive in Aboriginal female homicides was “argument or quarrel” representing 40% of all incidents (compared to 23% for non-Aboriginal females).”

“The data collected indicates that police solve almost 9 of every 10 female homicides, regardless of victim origin (88% for Aboriginal female homicides, 89% for non-Aboriginal female homicides). Other factors, such as victim involvement in certain occupations, may reduce the chance their murder will be solved.”

Risk Factors

Aboriginal women are less likely to be employed, more likely to be on a form of assistance, and more likely to support themselves through ‘illegal means’ (by 10%).

Aboriginal women are more likely to have consumed an intoxicating substance before death (63% to 20% for NAF).

Sex trade:

“Aboriginal female homicide victims involved was slightly higher than that of non-Aboriginal female homicide victims — 12% versus 5% respectively — which are both relatively small components of the available population.  

As a result, it would be inappropriate to suggest any significant difference in the prevalence of sex trade workers among Aboriginal female homicide victims as compared to non-Aboriginal female homicide victims.”

(How disappointing for all the rednecks who claimed the vast majority of these women were prostitutes and therefore ‘did it to themselves’!)

Aboriginal women being slightly double NAF in the sex trade is worth noting, but hardly significant in terms of overall missing and murdered indigenous women. (There’s also no indication of the general number of NAF in prostitution). Even if we account for offenders being Johns, what of the others?

Then we come to the RCMP “efforts” to be implemented, to summarize:

–  Partnering with local and municipal forces for unresolved cases
– “Prevention efforts” aka targeting high risk communities
– “Increasing public awareness”

Here’s my favorite bit for ‘Strengthening the Data’:

“To continue to ensure there is solid data available for operational decision-making and to ensure RCMP members record the most relevant information possible for Statistics Canada, the RCMP will roll out changes to how it collects data on homicides and missing persons. As a result of this project, the RCMP will ensure that Aboriginal origin is captured as part of Homicide Surveys.”

You mean it hasn’t been up to this time? 

Another gold bit:

“Second, the use of the term “Aboriginal” as a descriptor has different definitions in the different data sources that make up this research project. For example, CPIC captures Aboriginal as an “ethnicity” whereas Statistics Canada’s official position is that “Aboriginal” is not an ethnicity but rather an origin. Where possible, the above report attempts to use Statistics Canada compliant language.”

And that’s it. That is the end of the overview. Here is what I take away from this:

1) I basically learned nothing and the five minutes I spent reading a quick Statistics Canada page (for the last post on this topic) was just as enlightening in much less time.

2) We still don’t know why Aboriginal women are being killed at a higher rate, and there’s no real attempt to pinpoint a cause. With such a small percentage in the sex trade, what about the others?

3) I am left with the same conclusion as my last post: are the “acquaintances” Aboriginal or not? That will explain the discrepancy.

4) The only thing you can really gather from this overview is that a bunch of drunk, unemployed losers, on welfare and disability, are getting pissed off and into “arguments” with Aboriginal women and then beating them to death.

Really? That’s it? A bunch of pathetic slobs getting drunk and killing Native women?

Here is what cakers have said: it’s their own family members killing them (not true). That turned into: it’s their own boyfriends and husbands (turns out less than NAFs). Then: they were all prostitutes (again not true).

How can they be 4% of the female population yet over 10% of the missing women? How can they be 4% of the population, yet account for 10-16% of the murders (up to 23%)? Especially when they are less likely to be killed by a spouse or family member than NAF? Why are they most likely to be killed in Yukon or Saskatchewan (with a white majority population)?

Does it all boil down to some loser leeches who feel big by treading on their “inferiors”? Who are these fat grease-stained slobs anyway? Aboriginal? White? Other?

I really don’t feel that I’ve come away with any answers from this. I did get to read some stats and look at some fancy charts though.

Post Script:

Why won’t the RCMP answer The Toronto Star’s questions?

RCMP won’t comment on discrepancies in the Missing Database (Globe & Mail)

Basic facts: missing / murdered Aboriginal women

This is not an in depth review, which I don’t have time for at the moment; but some basic facts. Based on the small number of known documented cases, quotes from fact sheet below:


“NWAC has gathered information about 582 cases of missing and murdered Aboriginal women and girls. Of these:

 67% are murder cases (death as the result of homicide or negligence);

 20% are cases of missing women or girls;

 4% are cases of suspicious death—deaths regarded as natural or accidental by police, but considered suspicious by family or community members; and

 9% are cases where the nature of the case is unknown—it is unclear whether the woman was  murdered, is missing or died in suspicious circumstances.

Over representation 

NWAC’s research indicates that, between 2000 and 2008, Aboriginal women and girls represented approximately 10% of all female homicides in Canada. However, Aboriginal women make up only 3% of the female population.

There are no national data sources regarding missing persons in Canada. This makes it difficult to look at the issue of missing Aboriginal women and girls in comparison to other missing women. The Saskatchewan Association of Chiefs of Police (SACP) is perhaps the only policing body to publish statistics on missing persons. It reports that almost 59% of missing women and girls in Saskatchewan are of Aboriginal ancestry.”

(Update: cakers started a database in 2014, only because of the missing Aboriginal women’s situation – can’t even give them credit for starting it themselves.)

Cases are recent

The oldest case in NWAC’s database occurred in 1944, but most are much more recent; 39% of the cases in NWAC’s database occurred between 2000 and 2010, and 17% occurred in the 1990s. In contrast, only 2% of the cases in the database occurred before 1970. This gap strongly suggests that there are still many older cases to document.


Most of the cases involve young women and girls. Just over half of the cases (55%) involve women and girls under the age of 31, with 17% of women and girls 18 years of age or younger. Only 8% of cases involve women over 45.


Of the cases where this information is known, the vast majority of women in NWAC’s database (88%) were mothers. NWAC estimates that more than 440 children have been impacted by the disappearance or murder of their mother. Very little is known about what happens to these children following the loss of their mother.

What is going on in BC?

More than a quarter (28%) of all cases occurred in British Columbia
, followed by Alberta with 16% of cases. Overall, more than half (54%) of cases occurred in the West: 29% of cases occurred in the south (Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec), 6% took place in the North; and 2% took place in the Atlantic provinces. NWAC is still working to confirm where the violence occurred in 8% of cases


NWAC has found that only 53% of murder cases involving Aboriginal women and girls have led to charges of homicide. This is dramatically different from the national clearance rate for homicides in Canada, which was last reported as 84% (Statistics Canada 2005, p.10). While a small number of cases in NWAC’s database have been “cleared” by the suicide of the offender or charges other than homicide, 40% of murder cases remain unsolved.

Aboriginal women are almost three times more likely to be killed by a stranger than non-Aboriginal women are.

Women involved in prostitution are extremely vulnerable and experience high levels of violence. NWAC has gathered information about prostitution in only a small number of cases. Of these cases, about half involve women who were not involved in prostitution, and about half involve women who were or were suspected to be involved in this area. This finding may change as we collect more data.”

The caker government is only now beginning to “structure an inquiry” into the matter. Most cakers have dismissed these women as ‘mere prostitutes’ and huffed that while working in such a dangerous “occupation” it’s natural they would come to harm. So far the NWAC’s research shows a significant portion were in fact not prostitutes.

Regardless of whether or not these women are prostitutes, what needs accounting for is the discrepancy. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women working in prostitution should face roughly the same percentage of murder and missing cases. Some take for granted that Aboriginal women will be over-represented in prostitution, but being such a minority in the country I can’t see them outweighing their “white” non-indigenous counterparts outright. Even if that were the case, murder cases should even out  on a percentage-wise basis.

But herein lies the problem, the cakers will say “well we don’t have the data!” (Repeat after me: we don’t have the data!) And without that, comparing indigenous high-risk population murders to others will be difficult.

(*Note: NWAC’s data was compiled in 2010, Stats Can data from 2014.)

The next defensive argument cakers make is that these women were mostly killed by “people they knew”. Which really is no surprise because most people are killed by those they know – especially women. The blame shifted to Aboriginal men, but Statistics Canada says:

Non-Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by family members than Aboriginal women (by 7%)

Aboriginal women are more likely to be killed by an acquaintance (5%); differences of homicide by stranger were only 2%.

It would be interesting to note the race of the ‘acquaintances’ but that isn’t mentioned here. If they’re Aboriginal, it evens out. If they’re white or non-indigenous then there’s a difference.

The homicide by stranger is also interesting, because if all these Aboriginal women are ‘prostitutes’ doing high-risk activities, shouldn’t the murder-by-stranger ratio be much higher than negligible? If you want to argue Johns as ‘acquaintances’ then you would need to figure out the number of murder-by-Johns for non-indigenous prostitutes.

Aboriginal people are 6 (women) to 7 (men) times more likely to be victims of homicide than non-indigenous persons.

For women they are 12x more likely in the Yukon and 11x more likely in Saskatchewan.

You could make a case for Aboriginal men being killed by fellow Aboriginals (I don’t have stats on this, I’m going by known gangs in Manitoba, etc), but those facts don’t necessarily bear out for the women. Approximately 79% of Aboriginal women are killed by those “they know”; this is roughly the equivalent of non-Aboriginal women – 81%.

Again, it depends on who these ‘acquaintances’ are. Really, the most reasonable answer is likely looking us in the face: the discrepancy is racism. Native women are seen as more ‘disposable’, unworthy, deserving of harm, and it’s likely figured that if they go missing nobody will care and it will attract less attention than a white woman for instance.

Now if solving the problem of missing Indigenous women comes down to solving racism in Canadian society … well, good luck with that! Canada is a typical racist colonial society that is unapologetic about its past, feels that it ‘deserves’ or ‘earned’ the right to conquest and that it’s justified by Providence or superior culture.

As mentioned in the last post, non-indigenous treatment and sexual exploitation of Aboriginal women is a serious problem. But that would mean holding white Canadian men to account – something that simply isn’t going to happen any time soon (as they control most of the society, especially the upper echelons).

Reasonable solutions were made in the report on how to help these objectified, trafficked women – but it’s up to their abusers to help implement the solutions to solving the crisis, a bit ironic and unlikely. A part of any formal “solution” will have to entail stopping the sexual trafficking and abusing of Aboriginal women by the majority non-indigenous Canadians. (Yes, that means actual law enforcement and not slaps on the wrist.)

I will have to look at more reports, but again it all comes down to who you choose to believe. According to a study/analysis done by the Toronto Star, most indigenous women did not know their killers. One might be more inclined to believe the press, rather than an often inept RCMP force that has the political need to cover its ass. Keep in mind the corruption of the Canadian government regarding the residential schools and its attempt to circumvent its crimes – can we expect any less here?

The Takeaway:

Simply put, Canada is a horrible place for Aboriginal women. To any reading this that are educated and have any options – I suggest you flee to the US as is your right under the Jay Treaty.

Canada’s treatment of Aboriginal Women

The following quotes and information are taken from the 2014 report: Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Aboriginal Women and Girls: Literature Review and Key Informant Interviews

This is an attempt to narrow down the report to the most pertinent information.


“According to the 2006 Canadian Census, Aboriginal peoples (North American Indian -First Nations, Métis, and Inuit) made up 3.8% of the total population, with just over half (51.2%) of the Aboriginal population being female. This is nearly 4% of the total female population in Canada.

Although they are only a small percentage of the population, Aboriginal women and girls are severely over represented in sexual exploitation and trafficking in comparison to the general Canadian population (Seshia, 2005; Sethi, 2007; Saewyc et al, 2008; Sikka, 2009; Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005; Ursel et al, 2007; Barrett, 2010)”  (pg 8)

“As part of her literature review on Aboriginal adolescent girls in the United States of America (USA), Pierce’s 2012 research paper explored recent Canadian research. Also grouping prostitution and human trafficking for sexual exploitation together, her review of Canadian literature identifies “Vancouver, British Columbia; Ottawa, Ontario; and Winnipeg, Manitoba as major centers for the sexual trafficking of Aboriginal women and children (p. 39)”

“Winnipeg: Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs (2010) released a document citing a Government of Canada website (www.stopsexwithkids.ca) identifying that of the approximately 400 children and youth exploited in Winnipeg every year, a high of 70-80 percent were of Aboriginal descent (and 72% of the 400 had been processed through Child and Family Services).”

“A 2010 extensive literature review by Barrett identified and explored promising practices for the prevention of human trafficking in Canada for the Status of Women Canada. Barrett stated that “studies on human trafficking in Canada conclude[d] that the majority of people trafficked within Canada are Aboriginal women and children victims of sex trafficking” (p. iii)” (pg 9)

History of Abuse

“Below are some of the highlights of the experiences of the experiential Aboriginal women in the report:

79% had been abused as children (on average by 4 perpetrators).

Over two thirds of the women had family who had attended boarding schools.

92% had been raped.

84% had been physically assaulted.

72% experienced traumatic brain injuries in prostitution.

98% were either currently or previously homeless.

52% at the time of the interview had PTSD; 71% had symptoms of dissociation.

80% had used outpatient substance abuse services; 77% had used homeless shelters; 65% had used domestic violence services; and 33% had used sexual assault services.

92% wanted to escape prostitution.
(Farley et al, 2011, p. 3)

Additionally, from the pool of participants, thirty-nine percent identified as prostituting as minors (below the age of eighteen) – which means they were trafficked.”

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

“In a 2005 paper examining prostituted and trafficked women, out of the one hundred participants, including both First Nations and non-First Nations, 72% qualified for PTSD, which is “among the highest reported in populations where PTSD has been studied, including battered women, combat veterans, childhood trauma survivors, rape survivors, and torture survivors” (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005, p. 255) . Those who are prostituted and sexually trafficked often experience extreme and intentional violence, abuse and torture. It is no surprise that these women and girls fulfill the criteria for PTSD. Such evidence suggests the difficulty of trying to move on from sexual exploitation, trafficking, and prostitution.”

Root Causes

“The over-representation of Aboriginal women and girls in sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada has been explored on repeated occasion through a span of years. However, the identified root causes never seem to change. These are the impact of colonialism on Aboriginal societies, the legacies of the residential schools and their inter-generational effects, family violence, childhood abuse, poverty, homelessness, lack of basic survival necessities, race and gender-based discrimination, lack of education, migration, and substance addictions.

In some Aboriginal communities, these root causes coupled with rural/remote living conditions creates a complex environment that contributes to an increased risk among Aboriginal women and girls in being sexually exploited and trafficked. Also, some of the cultural aspects of rural environments make it difficult for Aboriginal communities and individuals to address this issue, prevent it and/or heal from it. Factors such as isolation, poverty, lack of support networks, lack of education and cultural activities further enhance the vulnerabilities of Aboriginal women and girls when they migrate to cities (Kingsley & Mark, 2001; Barrett, 2010; Urban Native Youth Association, 2001; Seshia, 2005; Farley & Lynne, 2005).” (pg 11)

As noted in the report, most of the issues are also common to non-Aboriginal women in prostitution and trafficking: sexual abuse, traumatic childhoods, poverty, low education levels, substance abuse, addictions, lack of resources. 

Introduction into both has common themes, including: pimps (originally acting as caretakers, ‘job providers’ or other concerned benevolent characters), boyfriends (feigning love and comfort at the beginning stages); drug suppliers (creating addictions in order to control the women physically and financially); and criminals holding them against their will through coercion and threats of harm.

Generally cakers will argue that Aboriginal women were abused by “their own” and so it’s not their [cakers] “fault” or responsibility; as such, they shift the burden back onto the women. While inter-familial violence is a big issue inside Aboriginal communities, these women are abused just as much (if not more) by white Canadians. 

This happens through the johns [customers] who are predominately white, and sexual abuse in foster care; a very slim minority of foster carers are Aboriginal.

Correlation to Foster Care

“While the research does not say that Aboriginal children who go into child welfare services and foster care will be sexually exploited, there is significant co-relational data to link heightened vulnerability to being sexually exploited and trafficked with being involved in child welfare services. TERF performs an intake evaluation on their participants and their findings are that:

74% of TERF youth are involved with Child and Family Services.
With an average of 5 placements in their short lives.

68% of TERF adults were clients of Child and Family Services as youth.
With an average of 6.5 placements during their youth.

 (Ursel et al, 2007, p. iii)

Saewyc et al’s 2008 study, compiling data from five different youth health surveys, and including 1,845 youth across British Columbia, (and of which Aboriginal youth were found to make up one third to one-half of the sexually exploited participants across the surveys) found that many participants had had experience with child welfare services.

For some, foster care or a group home was their first site of sexual exploitation: 14% in 2000, 10% in 2001, and 12% in 2006 (p. 23). The researchers further explored the relation of youth in care and found that “sexually exploited youth were significantly more likely to have been in care than their non-exploited peers” (p. 40). The researchers specified further:

Among younger street-involved youth in 2006, 44% of sexually exploited youth had been in care, compared to 33% of non-exploited youth. Similarly, among older street-involved youth in 2001, 66% of exploited youth had been in care, compared to 41% of non-exploited youth. Youth in custody in 2000 had even higher rates: 75% of sexually exploited youth had been in care, while 59% of non-exploited youth had been in care. (Saewyc et al. 2008, p. 40) (p33)”

The reality for many Aboriginal women and girls in Canada are that they are victims and survivors of domestic sex trafficking. Aboriginal women and girls are being targeted for sexual exploitation and relocated from their communities, homes, foster homes, to and within urban centres in Canada. In general, the high rates of migration from a reserve (rural area) to an urban centre also poses an increased risk and entry point through which vulnerable Aboriginal women and girls may be exploited. The promises by sex traffickers to provide shelter and employment in off – reserve communities can lead young Aboriginal girls to feel that they can escape poverty or a potential problem situation at home. They willingly leave their home and community only to discover that the promise was too good to be true and they are forced into sex slavery. They are manipulated and lured by sex traffickers. Many Aboriginal girls go missing from communities or in urban centres and they are viewed as runaways, or simply fall off the radar. The misinterpretations of misconceptions on the definition regarding cross-border movement and coercion leaves many trafficked Aboriginal women and girls unprotected and neglected. (p 35)”

I looked up information regarding Aboriginal children in foster care. They overwhelmingly represent the bulk of foster children:

“… aboriginal children made up seven per cent of the country’s child population, but accounted for 48 per cent of foster children.”

Of course, cakers didn’t begin to take census information on foster children until 2011! Subsequently, it’s difficult to ascertain certain things because they – you guessed it – don’t have the data! 

From the data in this report alone, sexual abuse of foster children can be assumed to fluctuate between 10-15%. Keep in mind this is only self-reported data from women who went on to become prostitutes or trafficking victims (the small group surveyed here); not counting the unreported incidents and women who survived childhood relatively unscathed. The number could reasonably be assumed at approximately 1 in 5 aboriginal children being abused in care.

Curious, I looked up statistics and lo and behold:

A recent report found shocking levels of sexual abuse in British Columbia. And:”More than 60 per cent of the victims were Indigenous girls, the report found, even though Indigenous youth only make up a quarter of the youth in foster care in B.C.”

Indigenous girls are up to 4x more likely to be sexually abused. I would like to give more information but you know the old favorite caker standby: we don’t have the data!

National Resources

RCMP’s Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre:

“In fulfilling these priorities they have launched a campaign, “I am not for Sale” with educational tools aimed at Canada’s youth. They have also released a report, Human Trafficking in Canada. Regrettably, both of these initiatives are lacking a specific mention of Aboriginal peoples. The report goes so far as to include specific chapters linking Eastern European, Asian, and African women to human trafficking in Canada, and yet there is no specific mention of Aboriginal women and girls. Instead of putting forth the needed awareness and identification of the importance of Aboriginal women and girls’ sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada, we are instead left with a stereotyped view of human trafficking that largely passes over the domestic nature of this crime in Canada.” (p 37)

(It would make sense to aim your awareness-campaign towards the most trafficked group, would it not? But this is the RCMP!)

“Further challenging the RCMP’s task to address human trafficking is a lack of funding when it comes to Aboriginal women and girls. In a Committee report of the Parliament of Canada, it is reported that Sergeant Lori Lowe had advised the Committee, “that the RCMP’s National Aboriginal Policing Service had an interest in examining the trafficking of Aboriginal women for the purpose of sexual exploitation, but that the RCMP lacked funding and human resources to be able to carry out such research” (Standing Committee on the Status of Women, 2007, p. 10). Considering the prevalence of Aboriginal women and girls as victims of sexual exploitation, this is a funding and resource deficiency that should be sufficiently addressed so that the RCMP is properly informed on the issue.”

Of course cakers don’t have the funding! And without the funding they can’t carry out research, which of course means solid information and provable statistics; they can fall back on their favorite excuse: lack of data! Why even have a unit if you can’t fund resources for the number one victim group?

BC’s Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons

“In line with some of the suggestions put forth earlier in this paper, the OCTIP engages in significant public education endeavours on human trafficking. Networking and collaborating with Aboriginal communities is to be applauded, and their approach of education about human trafficking directly answers to calls in the literature for such practices. However, while they recognize the priority of human trafficking for Aboriginal women and youth, currently the organization is without a strategic plan on how to address the issue. It is also unclear how, from their report, they plan to leverage the relationship-building with Aboriginal communities to combat Aboriginal sexual exploitation in a systematic way.”

National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking

“The Canadian government released their National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (NAPCH) by Public Safety in 2012 … 

In a testament to how prevalent domestic trafficking is, the report identified that, of the cases waiting to be processed, ninety percent were regarded as domestic human trafficking (National Action Plan, p. 8). The report identifies the disparities in the current protection system, confessing a knowledge gap in how human trafficking in Aboriginal communities manifests and takes shape (National Action Plan, p. 12). In their 2012 strategy, the only suggestion to address gaps in this area is that there needs to be enhanced engagement with Aboriginal organizations. More recently, Public Safety Canada tendered a call for proposals titled, Research: Trafficking of Aboriginal Women and Girls: Trends and Issues. At the time of this writing, this research is currently being carried out.” (p 39)

Child Sexual Exploitation and Human Trafficking Act, 2012

“In addition to this, the Act also provides the victim with recourse to sue their perpetrator in Tort Law over the harm caused by their actions. While a valid effort, an analysis of Aboriginal contexts quickly raises some problem areas … 

… suing requires a lawyer, and a lawyer requires fees. Requiring Aboriginal women and girls to fund their pursuit of justice as trafficking victims is problematic. Considering that Aboriginal women and girls are among the poorest of the poor, this may be a very unaffordable option to pursue their rights. 

Considering the widespread sexual exploitation of Aboriginal women and girls in Canada as a domestic trafficking practice, it would seem logical that any anti-human trafficking endeavours in Canada would have this consideration as one of its key understandings and act upon it. Yet we see from the above examples that it is quite often simply not the case. The Manitoba Act is the only one in existence in Canada.” (p 39)

Victims by “choice”

“Throughout the three articles, the collective argument of the researchers are that the prevalence of sexual abuse suffered by these women as children, their on-going exploitation until they hit the age of 18 (at which point Canadian law, law enforcement, and civil society seem to deem it a ‘choice’), their poverty, and their lack of alternatives can only logically and ethically mean that it is not a choice, they are being exploited, by pimp, madam, or john. In the 2003 article, which was a research endeavour exploring the roots of ‘prostitution’ in nine different countries, these authors make the contention that genuine consent cannot exist in prostitution. Real consent requires: “physical safety, equal power with customers, and real alternatives.” (Farley et al., 2003, p. 65)” (p 40)

“Historical views of Aboriginal females as sexually available and as criminals carries over into some modern views. Added to this image are the impacts of colonization, residential school trauma and intergenerational effect, and the breakdown of traditional communities as a result of these pressures and impacts (Sikka, 2009), resulting in inter-related factors increasing the over-representation of these women and girls in Canada’s domestic sex trade. However, these factors do not move these women into the category of what is popularly and legally considered trafficking, “thus, things that happen to [these women and girls] are not viewed as exploitation or trafficking in persons, but rather as a natural consequence of the life that she has chosen to occupy. The image of the trafficked ‘victim,’ therefore, does not include her story” (Sikka, 2009,p. 2). ” (p 41)

“If, in attempting to address women who have been sexually trafficked, we ignore women working in prostitution who have not been relocated for the purposes of sexual exploitation, and we ignore women who have no pimp but are daily exploited by johns, then it is NWAC’s stance that such a perspective would be unethical to addressing sexually exploited women, and such endeavours would be built to greatly limit the addressing of the real society issues and factors that make up human trafficking for the purposes of sexual exploitation in Canada.”

Legalized prostitution: a failed project

“Illegal prostitution, in the form of human trafficking, continues to take place in countries, such as Germany, where it was legalized in 2002. Two-thirds of the estimated 400,000 sex workers in Germany travel from overseas to the country (Osborne, 2013) where the system of legalized prostitution provides a cover for traffickers to mask indications of international human trafficking, allowing women in large numbers to be brought to Germany and sexually exploited (Unprotected: How legalizing prostitution has failed, 2013). When confronted by police, many workers from outside of Germany were told what to say by their pimps to avoid suspicion. Since the legalization of prostitution in Germany, the number of trafficked victims has increased from an estimate of 9,870 – 19,740 in 2001 to 12,350 – 24,700 in 2003 (German Federal Police Office Report, 2009, p.75). The legalized prostitution system has provided for a great increase in trafficking victims in an unhealthy dynamic that seems to be increasing the number of women who are forced and trapped within a legalized system.

Quit talking, start doing

“Perhaps it is time to reframe the discussion on sex trafficking in Canada and greatly increase the emphasis on exploring Aboriginal over-representation, exiting, and prevention as opposed to repeatedly ‘discovering’ high Aboriginal representation in research on Canada’s domestic sex trafficking and sexual exploitation. Some of this would be addressed through pursuing a national research agenda that would present a comprehensive picture of Aboriginal representation in Canada’s domestic sex trafficking. Partly it would depend on recognition in the ranks of policy development and implementation that Aboriginal contexts should be a priority. It is not our contention to displace others who are suffering in sexual exploitation and trafficking in Canada.

However, from our research, and that of others, findings show that Aboriginal women and girls are drastically over-represented in sex trafficking to the point where they seem to be the dominant representatives in some regions of Canada, and not far behind that in other places. With Aboriginal women and girls making up such a small segment of Canada’s population, this over-representation is unacceptable and requires immediate attention.”

Caker question: What’s the difference between ‘red-skins’?

“The prevailing practice in research focusing on Aboriginal women and girls in sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in Canada uses a “pan-Aboriginal” approach which amalgamates First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples into one group. This is both troubling and problematic. It does not fully recognize the cultural diversity, distinctness, and identities of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit Peoples.”

Buying sex: interconnection

“As I’ve studied and learned from women who’ve been exploited and prostituted – most from the time they were children – it has become clear to me that trafficking, prostitution, strip clubs and pornography are all interconnected. Unless we are willing to talk about and address each of these, and in particular, the demand that drives them, we won’t solve the problem of sexual exploitation.”

Ms. Beazley further expressed that, “Pornography teaches entitlement – the idea that sex is a need, and that men have a right to it on their terms at any time, which legitimizes the buying of sex and leads us to accept that there should be a class of women made available for purchase. Porn feeds the demand for paid sex – which funnels women into prostitution. Men consume porn and seek out the sex they believe other men are having and feel they too are entitled to have. As violence and degradation in porn have become commonplace, this is mirrored in the lived experiences of women in prostitution. And all of this fuels sex trafficking. Increased demand for paid sex always leads to an increase in trafficking. Trafficking victims are exploited in pornography, and filmed sex acts are sometimes used as a means of coercion and control. Porn is also used to groom and train trafficking victims.”

John entitlement: violence

“We know from the research that a very high number of Johns are violent (this includes both physical and verbal acts of aggression). High-volume participant studies return high reports of violence: 90% of 100 women (52 of which were First Nations) had been physically assaulted in prostitution (Farley, Lynne, & Cotton, 2005); 92% reported being raped in prostitution – over half were raped 5-10 times, 15% of them raped over 20 times; 84% reported being physically assaulted while prostituting, and of the assaults, Johns were the perpetrators for 44% of the attacks (Farley et al, 2011, p. 28). While we recognize that there is a distinction between prostitution and trafficking, as prostitution is deemed non-forced and trafficking as forced, we think it is fair to work on the inference that, if different, trafficking victims would face more, not less violence. For this reason, studies on violence against prostitutes would still have bearing on people who are sexually trafficked.” (pg 46)

Blame Jezebel

“From their perspective, it would seem that the fundamental approach in Canada was misdirected, and that blame for trafficking fell squarely on the shoulders of trafficked women and girls. This was reflected in the fact that prosecuting of prostitution where currently women faced incarceration for acts of prostitution while the johns were sent to john school (a place where johns are educated on prostitution such that they are discouraged from engaging in it again). Incarceration only further marginalizes and discriminates against these vulnerable women and girls and makes difficult their exiting of prostitution for safer, more reliable employment options. The law does not seem to be effective in pursuing pimps and johns. In their experience, the interviewees indicated that judgment, on the part of police and media, seemed to be a very relevant factor in terms of whether police perform fairly when it comes to missing and trafficked Aboriginal girls. The police are more likely to arrest the women over the men. Some may have thought it was a form of helping these women.”

Torture vs Assault

“Additionally, we would like to specifically address the aspect of torture in sexual exploitation and trafficking. Torture that occurs in the context of intimate relationships and trafficking is dismissed as an assault or domestic violence. Two of the key informants that were interviewed spoke of how disappointed they are in Canada because of the present government’s refusal to change section 269.1 of the criminal code so that a private individual (a non-State actor) who commits classic torture can be criminally charged for the crime of torture they perpetrate; making such a change to the criminal code was a recommendation given to Canada by the UN Committee against Torture in 2012. They explained further that the criminal code only criminalizes torture perpetrated by State actors such as military and police personnel. Currently, the definition of human trafficking is about perpetrators who work to enslave a victim in the ways described in Canadian law and the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress & Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children. The interviewees strongly emphasized that “once enslaved the reality is that many are tortured and Canadian law does not provide for holding such torturers criminally accountable for the torture they inflict; they must be, to eliminate discrimination under the law and support the human and legal rights of women and girls so victimized to speak their truth, be heard, and seek justice.” (pg 73)

Finally I will include what seem to be the most relevant and common sense solutions recommended for implementation:

Social Support Programs

“As much as is possible and practical, involve experiential survivors in the running of support programs and services. According to previous research, this is one of the best ways to make positive connections with women and girls currently being exploited, which reinforces their own commitment for and belief in changing their lives for the better.

  • Involve experiential women (former and, if possible, current) in the development of new programs and support services; showing them how important their voices and input are helps build confidence while ensuring the program will connect with them and meet their needs.

  • Aboriginal women and girls need safe housing and safe spaces; homelessness and a lack of safe places greatly increase the vulnerability of these women and girls. Immediate funding and long-term support are needed to provide for this housing shortage

  • Provide childcare for participants in programs. Many of these women and young girls are attempting to raise children; without adequately providing for their childcare needs, they may be unable to attend or effectively engage with any support programs and services.”


Because the overwhelming majority of cakers are too lazy, racist and stupid to read a simple report, I will summarize and interpret:

– As poverty statistics show: Aboriginal people all over the country overwhelmingly live in poverty and often third world conditions (see: north, rural).

– Most Aboriginal women grow up in dysfunctional homes with cycles of family violence and addictions; these are in part a result of a century of child sexual abuse, rape, and torture at residential schools.

While cakers will tell the communities to “get over it”, the last school closed in the 90s. For those who went to school during the 60s era and had children in the 80s, their offspring are somewhere in the late 20s to early 30s age-group; it is still fairly “new” inter-generational trauma.

-When Aboriginal girls are removed from their dysfunctional homes and placed in foster care (with “white parents”) they are at large risk of being sexually abused: 4x the average of non-indigenous girls, as many as 1 in 5 girls (likely more).

-After being abused at home, growing up in dysfunction, and/or being sexually abused in foster care, a significant portion go on to become addicted, homeless, or are “pimped” into prostitution or sexually trafficked.

-Aboriginal women make up the majority of trafficked persons in Canada.

-Society then complains about the victims of “choice” when they go missing or are murdered, saying they “chose” to be victims, thereby dismissing their hardships and the systemic racism in Canada.

-The women are punished more often – and harsher –  than the men who are “buying” them. Without demand there is no need for supply (as anyone fighting the “drug war” will tell you); it is a simple, well known principle.

It seems absurd to re-victimize the very people who have been downtrodden their whole lives, but this is what the Canadian system does.

So after non-aboriginal Canadians raped and abused the children at residential schools, they then are the majority of johns “buying” the children and women in Winnipeg, Vancouver, etc. They are also the majority sexually-abusing indigenous girls in foster care.

Is it any wonder that the “Johns” or customers are never held to account, properly prosecuted or investigated? It’s no coincidence. It is easy to blame the victim for existing, for not “trying hard enough” to escape victimhood, while the perpetrators remain protected and unprosecuted.

Cakers … such nice people! In fact, they love to tell you how nice they are! They’re “not racist”. And of course they’re “less racist” than Americans (which the facts do not suggest), something they’ll point out should any criticisms arise.

O Canada!